How to Start Poultry Farming (Chicken Rearing) Business

Poultry Farming in Nigeria is probably one of the most lucrative in the world especially when it is setup and managed properly. This aspect of livestock farming presents one of the finest opportunity for entrepreneurs to make good money within the shortest period of time possible due to the quick maturity of chickens. 

With over 100 Million consumers in the country who buys poultry products on daily basis, the market is always there.
White Leghorn also known as California White
I have written some number of articles before on this blog on poultry rearing such as:

How to start small scale poultry farming

Feasibility study on poultry farming in Nigeria

How to start a poultry farm on demand

PDF eBook on Poultry Farming in Nigeria

How to build low cost poultry pen for Local Farmers

This very post will take more critical look at the business and how entrepreneurs who are interested in this business in Nigeria could start easily without wasting much time and resources. 

Anyone can engage in poultry business, it doesn't matter your educational or financial background, you can start at any level and grow as big as you want with time. The most important thing is that you are interested in starting somewhere.

This articles will focus on how to start small and grow big which I think will interest anyone with limited financial capacity who wants to start small without involving much risks.

One of the factors that makes poultry business ideal business is because chickens grows very fast. Unlike goats that takes 2 to 3 years to mature, a chicken can be ready for the market within 28 weeks from birth. That is why it is considered ideal business for loan takers who may actually invest the loan and within 30 to 40 weeks, they may start paying back through the money realized from sells.

Profit potential in poultry business. 

1. Chicken do reproduce fast and in large numbers - Average healthy Layer lays egg almost everyday or at least 4 times in a week. Some Breeds can lay as much as 325 eggs in a year and take 21 days to hatch. This means that technically a Layer is capable of producing another chicken twice in three days.

So, if you have 500 healthy layers of good breeds (such as California white) they are capable of reproducing a whooping 12,000 chicks within 40 days!

2. Chicken grows very fast - Within 21 days, the egg is hatched and within 28 weeks, they are ready for the market. That means a farmer may start making his money in just 34 weeks after successfully setting up his farm and whatever returns he make could be doubled in a year based on this calculation.

3. Chicken sells at a very good price - A fully grown healthy chicken sells between 2,000 to 2,500 naira in Nigeria. Therefore, if you produce 12,000 chickens in your farm, you will be making N24 million by the time they are completely sold.

4. Egg market in Large too - Apart from the chicken, the egg is another money of it's own. A crate of eggs sells for N500 - N550 for smaller eggs and N600 - N650 for bigger ones. Each crate contains 30 eggs. Therefore, if you have 500 layers that produces 12,000 pullet in a month and decides to sell all, you will be making N200,000 to N260,000 monthly.

As you can see, the profit in poultry business is mouth watering and the turn over time is fantastic as well, but the big question now is how to start. 

What Your Poultry Business Plan Should Look Like

Draw out your effective business plan. Poultry business plan is like a road map leading you to where you are going in you business. It will help you know where you are at any point in time. Hence your business plan should include: 
1. Type of Bird you want to concentrate on -  Here you choose Chickens (Layers and Broilers). We choose chicken because that's what this article focuses on. There are other types of birds that are good for livestock business too,  such as Goose, Duck, Turkey, etc.

2. Write down your area of interest - You can't just be in all aspect of poultry farming. You have to choose your area of interest where you would like to concentrate your business. This will ensure high level of focus and professionalism. If you can do two area, no problem. Below are some of the major Niches in Poultry Farming
  • Layers Breeding which is egg production by Layers
  • Broilers breeding which referrers to the chicken meat production by Broilers
  • Hatchery which has to do with breeding chicken for the purpose of Hatching new chicks
  • Poultry feed which is producing feeds for other poultry farmers
You may choose to Breed Layers and Broilers at a time or one of them. Hatchery is better done independently just like feed production. So, you choose your area of focus

3. Sort out Location - This has a direct effect to your startup cost. A location in a very remote rural area will cost far less than the one close to the urban area. Remote rural area with good road is the ideal location as you will be free from regulatory agencies and drive down the cost of labor too.

As a new person to Livestock business, you don't want to invest all your capital into buying lands in urban area which may turn out not being used because Government policy is against setting up poultry farm near residential/urban areas for health implication.

4. Investment Capital - With location in mind, you now have clearer idea of the capital required of you. Write down your detailed capital and investment requirements and set to source it.

Like every other farming projects, the bigger you plan to start, the more investment required. You need to decide on the level of capital investment you are willing to commit into this business before starting.

(a) Small scale Chicken Rearing (of about 50 birds) kept in cages at the backyard of your resident will take about N70,000 to start.

(b) A medium scale poultry farming that requires land and housing and other materials in 1 - 2 plots of Land takes about N500,000 to N5 Million to start.

(c) Large scale or Intensive poultry farming that requires high level of sophistication and more careful planning and professionalism, using advance Livestock farming techniques takes from N10 Million

Set Up Your Poultry Farm

With your business plan is in place, the next is to proceed to setting up your farm without delay! At this point, it is my believe that you already have the money in your hands. So here are the things you need to acquire and put in place.

1. Buy land - Like we said earlier, look for land in a remote location but make sure it's not too far from the city. A place like Ijebu Ode, Remo Area, Imota in Ikorodu - these places are perfect if you are in Lagos. Other places like towards Oshogbo after Ibadan isn't too far too from the major city like Ibadan.

You can get Acre of land there for cheap price, cost of lands in most cases is determined by the sellers. But we may suggest price during commenting. So drop your comments below and let's get the discussion going.

2. Build your Structure - House is very important for chicken rearing and effective keeping and management. Poultry housing are classified according to the scale and the management system. The most common types of poultry housing used in Nigeria are:

•    Deep litter-
•    Half litter and half slats -
•    Battery -
•    Semi-fold -

Buy day old chick - Look for good Hatchery where you can get healthy day old chicks to start with. It costs from N140 to N200 sometimes up to N300.  
A new poultry farm populated with day-old-chicks
Other Items you need - Feeders, Drinkers, Perches. Nests, Crates, Lighting system, Waste disposal system, Incubator, Heaters or brooders, Egg tray, Cages and coops.

What's Next...


1. Click on the Facebook and Twitter buttons on top to share this with your friends let's move the discussion forward.

 

2. Make comment using the comment box. You can ask any question related to poultry farming or share your knowledge with us. 

If you need addition resources, you can Join hundreds of other poultry farmers who have made our Poultry Farming eBook their companion towards starting their poultry farms and managing it effectively. And the best part is that it contains complete Poultry Business Plan. Click Here to buy the poultry farming eBook
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